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Korean Dramas

What are some good K-drama shows about high school romance?

6 Answers

Hasi Dil

Hasi Dil , A fan of Korean dramas and movies.

Because Its the First Time

Revolves around five friends, who have been friends since school and present setting is when they are in following higher education.

The cast is great and the plot is is something like never before.

It is a must watch, if you like this genre. It only has 8 episodes so, you can binge watch anytime. It has Choi Min-ho, Park So-dam, Kim Min-jae and many more who are quite popular these days.

Girls Generation 1979

The setting is of 1979 in Daegu. This drama also revolves around friends and crushes at that time. It shows innocent love that is quite rare to be seen these days.

The cast is new and talented with Bona taking the lead role, joined by Chae Seo-jin, Seo Young-joo, Lee Jong-hyun, Yeo Hoe-hyun and Dohee. Another must watch drama with just 8 episodes.

Prajna Shetty

Prajna Shetty , Kdrama Junkie

this should answer all your doubts along with pretty good synopsis 🙂

The 20 best high school K-dramas you must watch right now

thanks for the AtoA

Jyostna Arisetty

Jyostna Arisetty , Addicted to Korean dramas since 2013

Thanks for A2A.

Weightlifting Fairy Kim Bok Joo

Reply 1997

Sassy Go Go

School 2017

Who Are You: School 2015

Girls Generation 1979 (2017)

Seventeen

Dream High

Boys Over Flowers

Thumping Spike

Goong

Hi! School – Love On

The Heirs

Anjaly Kb

Anjaly Kb , BA English Language and Literature

Hii chingu

  • Hi!School love on
  • Playful kiss
  • Heirs
  • School 2017
  • Boys Over Flowers
  • Heartstrings(collg rom)
  • Dream high
  • Ma boy(web drama of 3ep)
  • Orange Marmalade
  • Adolescence Medley (web drama 4 ep)
  • Weightlifting fairy Kim Bok Joo

Enjoyyy

Anusha Patil

Anusha Patil , Kdrama fan

According to me, the best ones are

  1. Reply 1997
  2. Who are you- School 2015
  3. Angry Mom
  4. Sassy Go Go

Sharanya

Sharanya , K-pop and K-Drama Addict

Originally Answered: Which are the best high school romance kdramas?

My personal favourites-

  • Sassy Go Go
  • To The Beautiful You
  • Dream High 2
  • Hi! School – Love On
  • Reply 1997
  • School 2013 and School 2015
  • Boys over Flowers

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  • Great Oaks Charter School – Bridgeport (GO-BPT) is a charter school in the East Side of Bridgeport, located at 510 Barnum Avenue. We are currently educating 425 students in grades 6-9.
  • What sets Great Oaks – Bridgeport apart is our tutoring model. We deliver at least two periods of one-on-one or small group tutoring to every student every day through the Great Oaks Tutor Corps.

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  • At Great Oaks – Bridgeport, our unrelenting focus on academic achievement with individualized care and support develops students’ mindsets, skills and knowledge to prepare them for high school and college success. We deeply value our scholars and recognize the greatness in every individual. Our team gets to know students extremely well so that they can educate to the individual to maximize their potential.
  • By the end of 8th grade, students will be performing at or above grade level in core content areas. They will take ownership over their academic career and consistently act on their commitment to academic excellence. They will understand how the choices they make today can impact the opportunities they have in the future. They will have developed a strong sense of self and pride in their own identity. They will use their strengths to be active contributors to the Great Oaks – Bridgeport community and to the greater good.

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  • Integrity: We tell the truth to ourselves and others. We ensure alignment between our beliefs and our actions. We engage in honest self-reflection and do what is good, just, and true.
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  • Great Oaks – Bridgeport is committed to investing in the Bridgeport community. We are anchoring a community development project that will turn abandoned factories in Bridgeport’s West End into a custom space for our school, and housing for our tutors and teachers, as well as other municipal workers. To learn more about the School at Cherry Street, visit our community partnerships page .

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how to format article titles

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Answered By: Kate Anderson, Business Librarian
Last Updated: Jul 25, 2018     Views: 884293

Simply put: no.

APA’s Publication Manual (2010) indicates that, in the body of your paper, you should use italics for the titles of:

  • books
  • periodicals (journals, magazines, newspapers)
  • films
  • videos
  • TV shows
  • Microfilm publications

Beyond APA’s specific examples, know that certain types of titles are almost always written in italics. 

Use italics in a word-processed document for the types of titles you’d underline if you were writing by hand.  A general rule of thumb is that within the text of a paper, italicize the title of complete works but put quotation marks around titles of parts within a complete work. 

The table below isn’t comprehensive, but it’s a good starting point

Titles in ItalicsTitles Placed in "Quotation Marks"
Title of a periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper)              Title of article in a periodical
Title of a book   Title of a chapter in a book
Title of a movie or playName of an act or scene in a movie or a play
Title of a television or radio series   Title of an episode within a tv or radio series
Title of a musical album or CDTitle of a song
Title of a long poemTitle of a short poem
Names of operas or long musical composition
Names of paintings and sculptures

Title of a short story

On an APA-style reference page, the rules for titles are a little different.  In short, a title you would italicize within the body of a paper will also be italicized on a reference page.  However, a title you’d place in quotation marks within the body of the paper (such as the title of an article within a journal) will be written in normal lettering and will not be in quotation marks.

Here are some examples:

Smith (2001) research is fully described in the Journal of Higher Education.

Smith’s (2001) article "College Admissions See Increase" was published in the Journal of Higher Education after his pivotal study on the admissions process.

Visit the APA Style Blog’s page  How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style to learn more!


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Comments (8)

  1. Nice, quick, concise listing. Good format to save for quick reference
    by AlonzoQuixano on May 14, 2015.
  2. Thank you so much for the information. It was so helpful and easily understandable.
    by mary woodard on Jun 29, 2015.
  3. Is it the same for MLA writing?
    Thanks

    Sara, Librarian: Lesa, Rasmussen College doesn’t teach or focus on MLA for students. But if you have specific MLA formatting questions, I recommend you take a look at the MLA FAQ website here: https://www.mla.org/MLA-Style/FAQ-about-MLA-Style

    by Lesa D.W on Dec 04, 2015.
  4. What about the name of a community program, for example Friend’s Read. Would you use quotations or italics?

    Sara, Librarian: Adriana, great question. for organization or program names in the text of a paper you don’t need to use italics or quotation marks. Just capitalize the major words of the organization or program like you did above with Friend’s Read.

    by Adriana on Apr 11, 2016.
  5. Thank you for this posting. I am writing a paper on The Crucible and, surprisingly, I couldn’t find on the wonderfully thorough Purdue Owl APA guide whether titles of plays are italicized or in quotes.
    by J.D. on Apr 18, 2016.
  6. this was really helpful, thank you
    by natalie on Dec 11, 2016.
  7. thank you so much, this is very helpful and easy to understand.
    by Mendryll on Jan 24, 2017.
  8. Thank you! I am also wondering, do you capitalize only the first word of the title when using it in the text of your paper, like you are supposed to do in the references list? Or do you capitalize all the “important” words like usual?

    Sara, Librarian Reply: Ashley, within the text of your paper you should capitalize all the important words like you normally would. Thank you for your question!

    by Ashley on Dec 04, 2017.
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by
Jacci Howard Bear
Updated April 24, 2018

Barring any overriding style guides used for a specific organization or school, the general rule is to use quotations for song titles and italicize CD or album titles. Do not use underlining (in place of italics) unless you’re still using a typewriter or writing out titles by hand.

How to Format Song Titles in Reports, Newsletters, and Other Documents

For matters of style when punctuating and formatting titles of any kind, turn first to the style guide prescribed by your employer, client, or teacher. In the absence of a prescribed style, use the following guidelines:

  • Put quotation marks around song titles. For best appearance in professionally typeset material, be sure to use proper typographical quote marks and apostrophes ( curly quotes ).
  • Set CD/album titles in italics. In typeset material, watch out for fake italics. That’s not a grammar rule but it is a good design and printing rule.

In desktop publishing software you can create character styles to simplify formatting and changing song titles and other types of titles used throughout a document.

Example References to Song Titles and Albums

  • Trace Adkins’ first #1 single “(This Ain’t) No Thinkin’ Thing” is from his 1997 CD Dreamin’ Out Loud
  • The title cut from Toby Keith’s How Do You Like Me Now? was the most played country song of 2000. Other favorites from the same album include “You Shouldn’t Kiss Me Like That” and “Country Comes to Town.

When the song/album is the same: In the second example, although “How Do You Like Me Now?” was the song title, it was also the album title and in that context is treated as the album title, using italics. It would be just as correct (although wordy) to write: My favorite song on the How Do You Like Me Now? album is “How Do You Like Me Now?

Punctuation in titles: When a song title ends in a question mark, exclamation point, or other punctuation, that mark goes inside the quotation marks because it is a part of the song title. The beginning portion of the Adkins song title in parentheses is contained in the quotation marks just like any other part of the song title. If the punctuation is not part of the song title, put it outside of the quotation marks. For example: Do you like the song “Country Comes to Town”?


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components of methodology section of research proposal

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Oman Med J. 2008 Apr; 23(2): 66–69.
PMCID: PMC3282423
PMID: 22379539

How to prepare a Research Proposal

Asya Al-Riyami *
Directorate of Research & Studies, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman.
*Address correpondence and reprint request to: Dr. Asya Al-Riyami, Director of Research & Studies, Directorate of Research & Studies, Directorate General of Planning, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. E-mail: [email protected]
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
Received 2008 Jan 5; Accepted 2008 Feb 27.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Health research, medical education and clinical practice form the three pillars of modern day medical practice. As one authority rightly put it: ‘Health research is not a luxury, but an essential need that no nation can afford to ignore’. Health research can and should be pursued by a broad range of people. Even if they do not conduct research themselves, they need to grasp the principles of the scientific method to understand the value and limitations of science and to be able to assess and evaluate results of research before applying them. This review paper aims to highlight the essential concepts to the students and beginning researchers and sensitize and motivate the readers to access the vast literature available on research methodologies.

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand its importance. 1 A research proposal is a detailed description of a proposed study designed to investigate a given problem. 2

A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it. Broadly the research proposal must address the following questions regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose: What you plan to accomplish, why do you want to do it and how are you going to do it. 1 The aim of this article is to highlight the essential concepts and not to provide extensive details about this topic.

The elements of a research proposal are highlighted below:

1. Title: It should be concise and descriptive. It must be informative and catchy. An effective title not only prick’s the readers interest, but also predisposes him/her favorably towards the proposal. Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables. 1 The title may need to be revised after completion of writing of the protocol to reflect more closely the sense of the study. 3

2. Abstract: It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. It should include the main research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any) and the method. Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used. 1 It should stand on its own, and not refer the reader to points in the project description. 3

3. Introduction: The introduction provides the readers with the background information. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it relates to other research. 4 It should answer the question of why the research needs to be done and what will be its relevance. It puts the proposal in context. 3

The introduction typically begins with a statement of the research problem in precise and clear terms. 1

The importance of the statement of the research problem 5 : The statement of the problem is the essential basis for the construction of a research proposal (research objectives, hypotheses, methodology, work plan and budget etc). It is an integral part of selecting a research topic. It will guide and put into sharper focus the research design being considered for solving the problem. It allows the investigator to describe the problem systematically, to reflect on its importance, its priority in the country and region and to point out why the proposed research on the problem should be undertaken. It also facilitates peer review of the research proposal by the funding agencies.

Then it is necessary to provide the context and set the stage for the research question in such a way as to show its necessity and importance. 1 This step is necessary for the investigators to familiarize themselves with existing knowledge about the research problem and to find out whether or not others have investigated the same or similar problems. This step is accomplished by a thorough and critical review of the literature and by personal communication with experts. 5 It helps further understanding of the problem proposed for research and may lead to refining the statement of the problem, to identify the study variables and conceptualize their relationships, and in formulation and selection of a research hypothesis. 5 It ensures that you are not “re-inventing the wheel” and demonstrates your understanding of the research problem. It gives due credit to those who have laid the groundwork for your proposed research. 1 In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point. The literature selected should be pertinent and relevant. 6

Against this background, you then present the rationale of the proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing.

4. Objectives: Research objectives are the goals to be achieved by conducting the research. 5 They may be stated as ‘general’ and ‘specific’.

The general objective of the research is what is to be accomplished by the research project, for example, to determine whether or not a new vaccine should be incorporated in a public health program.

The specific objectives relate to the specific research questions the investigator wants to answer through the proposed study and may be presented as primary and secondary objectives, for example, primary: To determine the degree of protection that is attributable to the new vaccine in a study population by comparing the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. 5 Secondary: To study the cost-effectiveness of this programme.

Young investigators are advised to resist the temptation to put too many objectives or over-ambitious objectives that cannot be adequately achieved by the implementation of the protocol. 3

5. Variables: During the planning stage, it is necessary to identify the key variables of the study and their method of measurement and unit of measurement must be clearly indicated. Four types of variables are important in research 5 :

a. Independent variables: variables that are manipulated or treated in a study in order to see what effect differences in them will have on those variables proposed as being dependent on them. The different synonyms for the term ‘independent variable’ which are used in literature are: cause, input, predisposing factor, risk factor, determinant, antecedent, characteristic and attribute.

b. Dependent variables: variables in which changes are results of the level or amount of the independent variable or variables.

Synonyms: effect, outcome, consequence, result, condition, disease.

c. Confounding or intervening variables: variables that should be studied because they may influence or ‘mix’ the effect of the independent variables. For instance, in a study of the effect of measles (independent variable) on child mortality (dependent variable), the nutritional status of the child may play an intervening (confounding) role.

d. Background variables: variables that are so often of relevance in investigations of groups or populations that they should be considered for possible inclusion in the study. For example sex, age, ethnic origin, education, marital status, social status etc.

The objective of research is usually to determine the effect of changes in one or more independent variables on one or more dependent variables. For example, a study may ask “Will alcohol intake (independent variable) have an effect on development of gastric ulcer (dependent variable)?”

Certain variables may not be easy to identify. The characteristics that define these variables must be clearly identified for the purpose of the study.

6. Questions and/ or hypotheses: If you as a researcher know enough to make prediction concerning what you are studying, then the hypothesis may be formulated. A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables. In other words, the hypothesis translates the problem statement into a precise, unambiguous prediction of expected outcomes. Hypotheses are not meant to be haphazard guesses, but should reflect the depth of knowledge, imagination and experience of the investigator. 5 In the process of formulating the hypotheses, all variables relevant to the study must be identified. For example: “Health education involving active participation by mothers will produce more positive changes in child feeding than health education based on lectures”. Here the independent variable is types of health education and the dependent variable is changes in child feeding.

A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables. 7

For exploratory or phenomenological research, you may not have any hypothesis (please do not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis). 1 Questions are relevant to normative or census type research (How many of them are there? Is there a relationship between them?). Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research (at times even the outlook and preference of the committee members, particularly the Chair). 6

7. Methodology: The method section is very important because it tells your research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. The guiding principle for writing the Methods section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether the methodology is sound. Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for another qualified researcher to implement the study. 1 Indicate the methodological steps you will take to answer every question or to test every hypothesis illustrated in the Questions/hypotheses section. 6 It is vital that you consult a biostatistician during the planning stage of your study, 8 to resolve the methodological issues before submitting the proposal.

This section should include:

Research design: The selection of the research strategy is the core of research design and is probably the single most important decision the investigator has to make. The choice of the strategy, whether descriptive, analytical, experimental, operational or a combination of these depend on a number of considerations, 5 but this choice must be explained in relation to the study objectives. 3

Research subjects or participants: Depending on the type of your study, the following questions should be answered 3 , 5

  • – What are the criteria for inclusion or selection?
  • – What are the criteria for exclusion?
  • – What is the sampling procedure you will use so as to ensure representativeness and reliability of the sample and to minimize sampling errors? The key reason for being concerned with sampling is the issue of validity-both internal and external of the study results. 9
  • – Will there be use of controls in your study? Controls or comparison groups are used in scientific research in order to increase the validity of the conclusions. Control groups are necessary in all analytical epidemiological studies, in experimental studies of drug trials, in research on effects of intervention programmes and disease control measures and in many other investigations. Some descriptive studies (studies of existing data, surveys) may not require control groups.
  • – What are the criteria for discontinuation?

Sample size: The proposal should provide information and justification (basis on which the sample size is calculated) about sample size in the methodology section. 3 A larger sample size than needed to test the research hypothesis increases the cost and duration of the study and will be unethical if it exposes human subjects to any potential unnecessary risk without additional benefit. A smaller sample size than needed can also be unethical as it exposes human subjects to risk with no benefit to scientific knowledge. Calculation of sample size has been made easy by computer software programmes, but the principles underlying the estimation should be well understood.

Interventions: If an intervention is introduced, a description must be given of the drugs or devices (proprietary names, manufacturer, chemical composition, dose, frequency of administration) if they are already commercially available. If they are in phases of experimentation or are already commercially available but used for other indications, information must be provided on available pre-clinical investigations in animals and/or results of studies already conducted in humans (in such cases, approval of the drug regulatory agency in the country is needed before the study). 3

Ethical issues 3 : Ethical considerations apply to all types of health research. Before the proposal is submitted to the Ethics Committee for approval, two important documents mentioned below (where appropriate) must be appended to the proposal. In additions, there is another vital issue of Conflict of Interest, wherein the researchers should furnish a statement regarding the same.

The Informed consent form (informed decision-making): A consent form, where appropriate, must be developed and attached to the proposal. It should be written in the prospective subjects’ mother tongue and in simple language which can be easily understood by the subject. The use of medical terminology should be avoided as far as possible. Special care is needed when subjects are illiterate. It should explain why the study is being done and why the subject has been asked to participate. It should describe, in sequence, what will happen in the course of the study, giving enough detail for the subject to gain a clear idea of what to expect. It should clarify whether or not the study procedures offer any benefits to the subject or to others, and explain the nature, likelihood and treatment of anticipated discomfort or adverse effects, including psychological and social risks, if any. Where relevant, a comparison with risks posed by standard drugs or treatment must be included. If the risks are unknown or a comparative risk cannot be given it should be so stated. It should indicate that the subject has the right to withdraw from the study at any time without, in any way, affecting his/her further medical care. It should assure the participant of confidentiality of the findings.

Ethics checklist: The proposal must describe the measures that will be undertaken to ensure that the proposed research is carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical research involving Human Subjects. 10 It must answer the following questions:

  • • Is the research design adequate to provide answers to the research question? It is unethical to expose subjects to research that will have no value.
  • • Is the method of selection of research subjects justified? The use of vulnerable subjects as research participants needs special justification. Vulnerable subjects include those in prison, minors and persons with mental disability. In international research it is important to mention that the population in which the study is conducted will benefit from any potential outcome of the research and the research is not being conducted solely for the benefit of some other population. Justification is needed for any inducement, financial or otherwise, for the participants to be enrolled in the study.
  • • Are the interventions justified, in terms of risk/benefit ratio? Risks are not limited to physical harm. Psychological and social risks must also be considered.
  • • For observations made, have measures been taken to ensure confidentiality?

Research setting 5 : The research setting includes all the pertinent facets of the study, such as the population to be studied (sampling frame), the place and time of study.

Study instruments 3 , 5 : Instruments are the tools by which the data are collected. For validated questionnaires/interview schedules, reference to published work should be given and the instrument appended to the proposal. For new a questionnaire which is being designed specifically for your study the details about preparing, precoding and pretesting of questionnaire should be furnished and the document appended to the proposal. Descriptions of other methods of observations like medical examination, laboratory tests and screening procedures is necessary- for established procedures, reference of published work cited but for new or modified procedure, an adequate description is necessary with justification for the same.

Collection of data: A short description of the protocol of data collection. For example, in a study on blood pressure measurement: time of participant arrival, rest for 5p. 10 minutes, which apparatus (standard calibrated) to be used, in which room to take measurement, measurement in sitting or lying down position, how many measurements, measurement in which arm first (whether this is going to be randomized), details of cuff and its placement, who will take the measurement. This minimizes the possibility of confusion, delays and errors.

Data analysis: The description should include the design of the analysis form, plans for processing and coding the data and the choice of the statistical method to be applied to each data. What will be the procedures for accounting for missing, unused or spurious data?

Monitoring, supervision and quality control: Detailed statement about the all logistical issues to satisfy the requirements of Good Clinical Practices (GCP), protocol procedures, responsibilities of each member of the research team, training of study investigators, steps taken to assure quality control (laboratory procedures, equipment calibration etc)

Gantt chart: A Gantt chart is an overview of tasks/proposed activities and a time frame for the same. You put weeks, days or months at one side, and the tasks at the other. You draw fat lines to indicate the period the task will be performed to give a timeline for your research study (take help of tutorial on youtube). 11

Significance of the study: Indicate how your research will refine, revise or extend existing knowledge in the area under investigation. How will it benefit the concerned stakeholders? What could be the larger implications of your research study?

Dissemination of the study results: How do you propose to share the findings of your study with professional peers, practitioners, participants and the funding agency?

Budget: A proposal budget with item wise/activity wise breakdown and justification for the same. Indicate how will the study be financed.

References: The proposal should end with relevant references on the subject. For web based search include the date of access for the cited website, for example: add the sentence “accessed on June 10, 2008”.

Appendixes: Include the appropriate appendixes in the proposal. For example: Interview protocols, sample of informed consent forms, cover letters sent to appropriate stakeholders, official letters for permission to conduct research. Regarding original scales or questionnaires, if the instrument is copyrighted then permission in writing to reproduce the instrument from the copyright holder or proof of purchase of the instrument must be submitted.

References

1. Wong P. How to write research proposal. International network on Personal meaning. Available at www.meaning.ca/archives Accessed June 18, 2008.
2. Traenkel JR, Wallen NE. How to design and evaluate research in education. On line learning center with power web. Available at www.highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072981369/student_view0/chapter24/key_terms.html Accessed June 18, 2008.
3. Fathalla MF, Fathalla MM. A practical guide for health researchers. WHO Regional Publications, Eastern Mediterranean. Series 30. In: WHO 2004.
4. Wilkinson AM. The scientist’s handbook for writing papers and dissertations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.
5. Health research methodology: A guide for training in research methods. WHO Regional publications. Western Pacific education in action. Series 5. WHO 1992.
6. Pajares F. Elements of proposal 2007. From http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/proposal.html Accessed June 18, 2008.
7. Krathwohl DR. How to prepare a research proposal: Guidelines for funding and dissertations in the social and behavioral sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1988.
8. Altman DG. Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 1991.
9. Shavelson RJ. Statistical reasoning for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1988.
10. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm Accessed September 7, 2008.
11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CW_wGSFavTc Accessed June 18, 2008.

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Oman Med J. 2008 Apr; 23(2): 66–69.
PMCID: PMC3282423
PMID: 22379539

How to prepare a Research Proposal

Asya Al-Riyami *
Directorate of Research & Studies, Ministry of Health, Sultanate of Oman.
*Address correpondence and reprint request to: Dr. Asya Al-Riyami, Director of Research & Studies, Directorate of Research & Studies, Directorate General of Planning, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. E-mail: [email protected]
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer
Received 2008 Jan 5; Accepted 2008 Feb 27.
Copyright notice
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Health research, medical education and clinical practice form the three pillars of modern day medical practice. As one authority rightly put it: ‘Health research is not a luxury, but an essential need that no nation can afford to ignore’. Health research can and should be pursued by a broad range of people. Even if they do not conduct research themselves, they need to grasp the principles of the scientific method to understand the value and limitations of science and to be able to assess and evaluate results of research before applying them. This review paper aims to highlight the essential concepts to the students and beginning researchers and sensitize and motivate the readers to access the vast literature available on research methodologies.

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand its importance. 1 A research proposal is a detailed description of a proposed study designed to investigate a given problem. 2

A research proposal is intended to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it. Broadly the research proposal must address the following questions regardless of your research area and the methodology you choose: What you plan to accomplish, why do you want to do it and how are you going to do it. 1 The aim of this article is to highlight the essential concepts and not to provide extensive details about this topic.

The elements of a research proposal are highlighted below:

1. Title: It should be concise and descriptive. It must be informative and catchy. An effective title not only prick’s the readers interest, but also predisposes him/her favorably towards the proposal. Often titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables. 1 The title may need to be revised after completion of writing of the protocol to reflect more closely the sense of the study. 3

2. Abstract: It is a brief summary of approximately 300 words. It should include the main research question, the rationale for the study, the hypothesis (if any) and the method. Descriptions of the method may include the design, procedures, the sample and any instruments that will be used. 1 It should stand on its own, and not refer the reader to points in the project description. 3

3. Introduction: The introduction provides the readers with the background information. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it relates to other research. 4 It should answer the question of why the research needs to be done and what will be its relevance. It puts the proposal in context. 3

The introduction typically begins with a statement of the research problem in precise and clear terms. 1

The importance of the statement of the research problem 5 : The statement of the problem is the essential basis for the construction of a research proposal (research objectives, hypotheses, methodology, work plan and budget etc). It is an integral part of selecting a research topic. It will guide and put into sharper focus the research design being considered for solving the problem. It allows the investigator to describe the problem systematically, to reflect on its importance, its priority in the country and region and to point out why the proposed research on the problem should be undertaken. It also facilitates peer review of the research proposal by the funding agencies.

Then it is necessary to provide the context and set the stage for the research question in such a way as to show its necessity and importance. 1 This step is necessary for the investigators to familiarize themselves with existing knowledge about the research problem and to find out whether or not others have investigated the same or similar problems. This step is accomplished by a thorough and critical review of the literature and by personal communication with experts. 5 It helps further understanding of the problem proposed for research and may lead to refining the statement of the problem, to identify the study variables and conceptualize their relationships, and in formulation and selection of a research hypothesis. 5 It ensures that you are not “re-inventing the wheel” and demonstrates your understanding of the research problem. It gives due credit to those who have laid the groundwork for your proposed research. 1 In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point. The literature selected should be pertinent and relevant. 6

Against this background, you then present the rationale of the proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing.

4. Objectives: Research objectives are the goals to be achieved by conducting the research. 5 They may be stated as ‘general’ and ‘specific’.

The general objective of the research is what is to be accomplished by the research project, for example, to determine whether or not a new vaccine should be incorporated in a public health program.

The specific objectives relate to the specific research questions the investigator wants to answer through the proposed study and may be presented as primary and secondary objectives, for example, primary: To determine the degree of protection that is attributable to the new vaccine in a study population by comparing the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. 5 Secondary: To study the cost-effectiveness of this programme.

Young investigators are advised to resist the temptation to put too many objectives or over-ambitious objectives that cannot be adequately achieved by the implementation of the protocol. 3

5. Variables: During the planning stage, it is necessary to identify the key variables of the study and their method of measurement and unit of measurement must be clearly indicated. Four types of variables are important in research 5 :

a. Independent variables: variables that are manipulated or treated in a study in order to see what effect differences in them will have on those variables proposed as being dependent on them. The different synonyms for the term ‘independent variable’ which are used in literature are: cause, input, predisposing factor, risk factor, determinant, antecedent, characteristic and attribute.

b. Dependent variables: variables in which changes are results of the level or amount of the independent variable or variables.

Synonyms: effect, outcome, consequence, result, condition, disease.

c. Confounding or intervening variables: variables that should be studied because they may influence or ‘mix’ the effect of the independent variables. For instance, in a study of the effect of measles (independent variable) on child mortality (dependent variable), the nutritional status of the child may play an intervening (confounding) role.

d. Background variables: variables that are so often of relevance in investigations of groups or populations that they should be considered for possible inclusion in the study. For example sex, age, ethnic origin, education, marital status, social status etc.

The objective of research is usually to determine the effect of changes in one or more independent variables on one or more dependent variables. For example, a study may ask “Will alcohol intake (independent variable) have an effect on development of gastric ulcer (dependent variable)?”

Certain variables may not be easy to identify. The characteristics that define these variables must be clearly identified for the purpose of the study.

6. Questions and/ or hypotheses: If you as a researcher know enough to make prediction concerning what you are studying, then the hypothesis may be formulated. A hypothesis can be defined as a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables. In other words, the hypothesis translates the problem statement into a precise, unambiguous prediction of expected outcomes. Hypotheses are not meant to be haphazard guesses, but should reflect the depth of knowledge, imagination and experience of the investigator. 5 In the process of formulating the hypotheses, all variables relevant to the study must be identified. For example: “Health education involving active participation by mothers will produce more positive changes in child feeding than health education based on lectures”. Here the independent variable is types of health education and the dependent variable is changes in child feeding.

A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables. 7

For exploratory or phenomenological research, you may not have any hypothesis (please do not confuse the hypothesis with the statistical null hypothesis). 1 Questions are relevant to normative or census type research (How many of them are there? Is there a relationship between them?). Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the design and methodology, and the audience of the research (at times even the outlook and preference of the committee members, particularly the Chair). 6

7. Methodology: The method section is very important because it tells your research Committee how you plan to tackle your research problem. The guiding principle for writing the Methods section is that it should contain sufficient information for the reader to determine whether the methodology is sound. Some even argue that a good proposal should contain sufficient details for another qualified researcher to implement the study. 1 Indicate the methodological steps you will take to answer every question or to test every hypothesis illustrated in the Questions/hypotheses section. 6 It is vital that you consult a biostatistician during the planning stage of your study, 8 to resolve the methodological issues before submitting the proposal.

This section should include:

Research design: The selection of the research strategy is the core of research design and is probably the single most important decision the investigator has to make. The choice of the strategy, whether descriptive, analytical, experimental, operational or a combination of these depend on a number of considerations, 5 but this choice must be explained in relation to the study objectives. 3

Research subjects or participants: Depending on the type of your study, the following questions should be answered 3 , 5

  • – What are the criteria for inclusion or selection?
  • – What are the criteria for exclusion?
  • – What is the sampling procedure you will use so as to ensure representativeness and reliability of the sample and to minimize sampling errors? The key reason for being concerned with sampling is the issue of validity-both internal and external of the study results. 9
  • – Will there be use of controls in your study? Controls or comparison groups are used in scientific research in order to increase the validity of the conclusions. Control groups are necessary in all analytical epidemiological studies, in experimental studies of drug trials, in research on effects of intervention programmes and disease control measures and in many other investigations. Some descriptive studies (studies of existing data, surveys) may not require control groups.
  • – What are the criteria for discontinuation?

Sample size: The proposal should provide information and justification (basis on which the sample size is calculated) about sample size in the methodology section. 3 A larger sample size than needed to test the research hypothesis increases the cost and duration of the study and will be unethical if it exposes human subjects to any potential unnecessary risk without additional benefit. A smaller sample size than needed can also be unethical as it exposes human subjects to risk with no benefit to scientific knowledge. Calculation of sample size has been made easy by computer software programmes, but the principles underlying the estimation should be well understood.

Interventions: If an intervention is introduced, a description must be given of the drugs or devices (proprietary names, manufacturer, chemical composition, dose, frequency of administration) if they are already commercially available. If they are in phases of experimentation or are already commercially available but used for other indications, information must be provided on available pre-clinical investigations in animals and/or results of studies already conducted in humans (in such cases, approval of the drug regulatory agency in the country is needed before the study). 3

Ethical issues 3 : Ethical considerations apply to all types of health research. Before the proposal is submitted to the Ethics Committee for approval, two important documents mentioned below (where appropriate) must be appended to the proposal. In additions, there is another vital issue of Conflict of Interest, wherein the researchers should furnish a statement regarding the same.

The Informed consent form (informed decision-making): A consent form, where appropriate, must be developed and attached to the proposal. It should be written in the prospective subjects’ mother tongue and in simple language which can be easily understood by the subject. The use of medical terminology should be avoided as far as possible. Special care is needed when subjects are illiterate. It should explain why the study is being done and why the subject has been asked to participate. It should describe, in sequence, what will happen in the course of the study, giving enough detail for the subject to gain a clear idea of what to expect. It should clarify whether or not the study procedures offer any benefits to the subject or to others, and explain the nature, likelihood and treatment of anticipated discomfort or adverse effects, including psychological and social risks, if any. Where relevant, a comparison with risks posed by standard drugs or treatment must be included. If the risks are unknown or a comparative risk cannot be given it should be so stated. It should indicate that the subject has the right to withdraw from the study at any time without, in any way, affecting his/her further medical care. It should assure the participant of confidentiality of the findings.

Ethics checklist: The proposal must describe the measures that will be undertaken to ensure that the proposed research is carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical research involving Human Subjects. 10 It must answer the following questions:

  • • Is the research design adequate to provide answers to the research question? It is unethical to expose subjects to research that will have no value.
  • • Is the method of selection of research subjects justified? The use of vulnerable subjects as research participants needs special justification. Vulnerable subjects include those in prison, minors and persons with mental disability. In international research it is important to mention that the population in which the study is conducted will benefit from any potential outcome of the research and the research is not being conducted solely for the benefit of some other population. Justification is needed for any inducement, financial or otherwise, for the participants to be enrolled in the study.
  • • Are the interventions justified, in terms of risk/benefit ratio? Risks are not limited to physical harm. Psychological and social risks must also be considered.
  • • For observations made, have measures been taken to ensure confidentiality?

Research setting 5 : The research setting includes all the pertinent facets of the study, such as the population to be studied (sampling frame), the place and time of study.

Study instruments 3 , 5 : Instruments are the tools by which the data are collected. For validated questionnaires/interview schedules, reference to published work should be given and the instrument appended to the proposal. For new a questionnaire which is being designed specifically for your study the details about preparing, precoding and pretesting of questionnaire should be furnished and the document appended to the proposal. Descriptions of other methods of observations like medical examination, laboratory tests and screening procedures is necessary- for established procedures, reference of published work cited but for new or modified procedure, an adequate description is necessary with justification for the same.

Collection of data: A short description of the protocol of data collection. For example, in a study on blood pressure measurement: time of participant arrival, rest for 5p. 10 minutes, which apparatus (standard calibrated) to be used, in which room to take measurement, measurement in sitting or lying down position, how many measurements, measurement in which arm first (whether this is going to be randomized), details of cuff and its placement, who will take the measurement. This minimizes the possibility of confusion, delays and errors.

Data analysis: The description should include the design of the analysis form, plans for processing and coding the data and the choice of the statistical method to be applied to each data. What will be the procedures for accounting for missing, unused or spurious data?

Monitoring, supervision and quality control: Detailed statement about the all logistical issues to satisfy the requirements of Good Clinical Practices (GCP), protocol procedures, responsibilities of each member of the research team, training of study investigators, steps taken to assure quality control (laboratory procedures, equipment calibration etc)

Gantt chart: A Gantt chart is an overview of tasks/proposed activities and a time frame for the same. You put weeks, days or months at one side, and the tasks at the other. You draw fat lines to indicate the period the task will be performed to give a timeline for your research study (take help of tutorial on youtube). 11

Significance of the study: Indicate how your research will refine, revise or extend existing knowledge in the area under investigation. How will it benefit the concerned stakeholders? What could be the larger implications of your research study?

Dissemination of the study results: How do you propose to share the findings of your study with professional peers, practitioners, participants and the funding agency?

Budget: A proposal budget with item wise/activity wise breakdown and justification for the same. Indicate how will the study be financed.

References: The proposal should end with relevant references on the subject. For web based search include the date of access for the cited website, for example: add the sentence “accessed on June 10, 2008”.

Appendixes: Include the appropriate appendixes in the proposal. For example: Interview protocols, sample of informed consent forms, cover letters sent to appropriate stakeholders, official letters for permission to conduct research. Regarding original scales or questionnaires, if the instrument is copyrighted then permission in writing to reproduce the instrument from the copyright holder or proof of purchase of the instrument must be submitted.

References

1. Wong P. How to write research proposal. International network on Personal meaning. Available at www.meaning.ca/archives Accessed June 18, 2008.
2. Traenkel JR, Wallen NE. How to design and evaluate research in education. On line learning center with power web. Available at www.highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072981369/student_view0/chapter24/key_terms.html Accessed June 18, 2008.
3. Fathalla MF, Fathalla MM. A practical guide for health researchers. WHO Regional Publications, Eastern Mediterranean. Series 30. In: WHO 2004.
4. Wilkinson AM. The scientist’s handbook for writing papers and dissertations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.
5. Health research methodology: A guide for training in research methods. WHO Regional publications. Western Pacific education in action. Series 5. WHO 1992.
6. Pajares F. Elements of proposal 2007. From http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/proposal.html Accessed June 18, 2008.
7. Krathwohl DR. How to prepare a research proposal: Guidelines for funding and dissertations in the social and behavioral sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1988.
8. Altman DG. Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 1991.
9. Shavelson RJ. Statistical reasoning for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1988.
10. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm Accessed September 7, 2008.
11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CW_wGSFavTc Accessed June 18, 2008.

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      eBook on Professional SharePoint 2013 Development

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      eBook on Professional SharePoint 2013 Development

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      Professional SharePoint Development Book Cover Professional SharePoint 2013 Development Ch.3 Developer Tools for SharePoint 2013
      Free eBook Paul Swider, Reza Alirezaei, Brendon Schwartz, Matt Ranlett, Scot Hillier, Jeff Fried & Brian Wilson

      A team of well-known Microsoft MVPs joins forces in this fully updated resource, providing you with in-depth coverage of development tools in the latest iteration of the immensely popular SharePoint.

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      Thorough coverage of development in SharePoint 2013

      A team of well-known Microsoft MVPs joins forces in this fully updated resource, providing you with in-depth coverage of development tools in the latest iteration of the immensely popular SharePoint. From building solutions to building custom workflow and content management applications, this book shares field-tested best practices on all aspect of SharePoint 2013 development.

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        bpi saving account application form


        Power Pinoys

        Filipino Empowerment Blog

        How to Open BPI Savings Account (Easy Guide)

        By 23 Comments

        bpi savings account express teller

        BPI (Bank of the Philippine Islands) is the oldest bank here in the Philippines and with that said, it’s usually the bank used by many companies for their employee payrolls. In this article, you’ll learn how to open a BPI Savings Account step-by-step. We will also discuss what are the BPI bank account requirements. So sit back and relax, keep calm, and keep reading. 🙂

        Table of Content:

        • BPI Savings Account Requirements
        • How to Open BPI Savings Account
        • BPI Savings Account Products
        • Frequently Asked Questions

        First of all, you might ask, why open savings account in BPI?

        One reason for me is accessibility. I don’t want to travel more than 10 kilometers just to do bank transaction. If you might notice, BPI’s got a lot of branches almost everywhere and that’s why I like it.

        Another thing is the online banking. I’m a freelance web developer and having an online banking option is a breeze. As much as possible, I want to do everything online because it increases my efficiency.

        BPI Savings Account Requirements

        Before you personally go to BPI’s office, you need to prepare the opening account requirements.

        1. 2 Valid IDs. You need to prepare 2 recognized valid IDs for your application. Here’s a series of typical valid IDs you can use: Driver’s License, Police Clearance , Barangay Clearance ,  NBI Clearance , Philhealth , Senior Citizen Card, Passport, PRC, Postal ID, Voter’s ID, and etc.

        Your IDs should be:

        • The original copy
        • Photo-bearing (should be clear)
        • It should be unexpired
        • Issued by an Official Authority

        2. 1 Utility Bill. This is to verify your billing address. You can use it even if it’s not named after you as long as you’re residing on the same address, it will do fine. Typical bills you can use: Electricity Bill, Water Bill, Internet Bill, Credit Card bills, and etc.

        3. 2 Copies of 2×2 Latest Photo. You may also want to bring 1×1 version of your photo just in case.

        4. Initial deposit amount. For every type of deposit accounts, there are different required initial deposit. So make sure to have the right amount before going in to the BPI Bank office.

        Step-by-Step Procedure in Opening a BPI Savings Account

        1. Personally go to the nearest BPI bank in your place and bring the requirements with you. Just check what banking hours the branch in your area is operating.

        2. Talk to the bank teller that you will be opening a BPI savings account. Worst case scenario, you’ll face a long queuing line. So don’t forget to bring your phone with you to kill boredom while waiting.

        3. The teller will give you a form that you need to fill out. Make sure that all information you inputted are double-checked so you will not be wasting your time just because of a misspelled information.

        4. Wait until your application is completely processed. You will be asked for the initial or opening balance depending on what type of savings account you are going to open.

        Note: 1 month after the initial deposit, there should be the required maintaining balance on your savings account. Else, your account will be deactivated.

        5. You need to wait for 1 day until your account will be activated. Usually, an ATM kit will be given to you right after your application. But if you happen to have a case where the teller ask you to wait for 2-3 days more, then that’s just fine too, I guess.

        bpi savings account ATM card

        BPI Express Teller ATM Card

        Right after you applied for your savings account, you might want to enroll your account to their online and phone banking. Today, online transactions are very much common. Enabling your card with online banking features is becoming a must.

        BPI Savings Account Products

        BPI offers several savings account products you can open depending on your personal requirements.

        1. BPI Easy Savers Account

        I’ve been in a situation where after I resigned from my previous company, I withdraw all of my last pay. When I’m about to do transactions again, voila! I just realized my account was deactivated LOL. With this card, this will not happen again, ever.

        BPI Easy Saver Product Features:

        • P200 pesos initial deposit
        • Zero maintaining balance

        Fees:

        • PHP  5 charge per withdrawal in any BPI Express Teller ATMs.
        • PHP 50 for the Express Teller Card fee
        • PHP 100  for withdrawals done over-the-counter in any BPI Branch.
        • other customer-initiated debits (OTC, EPS, and/or 24/7 banking channels)

        I’ve written an article how to create open a BPI Easy Saver’s account . You might check that one out.

        2. BPI Express Teller Savings Account

        This is the typical account given to employees by their employers. I previously used this type of account for getting my salary when I was still in the corporate world.

        Deposit Balance Requirements and Rates:

        • Required initial deposit: P500
        • Required maintaining balance: P3,000/month
        • Required daily balance to earn interest: P5,000
        • Interest rate: 0.250% (per annum)

        BPI Express Teller Savings Features:

        • Has interest on funds.
        • Access to Express Teller, Expressnet and Bancnet ATMs nationwide and Cirrus ATMs globally.
        • Cashless shopping in different Payment System (EPS) accredited merchants nationwide with no enrollment required.
        • Enrollment of recipient accounts for convenient fund transfer funds.
        • Enjoy hassle-free bill payments to more than 200 merchants through bills payment facility.
        • Reload your cellphones and prepaid cards in an instant via BPI 24/7 Banking channels.

        This account can be used for your typical day-to-day transactions.

        3. BPI Passbook Savings Account

        If saving money is the main purpose of why you are opening a savings account, BPI Passbook Savings account is the good choice to go. With this type of account, you cannot simply withdraw funds unlike like your typical ATM.

        Deposit Balance Requirements and Rates:

        • Required initial deposit: P10,000
        • Required maintaining balance: P10,000/month
        • Required daily balance to earn interest: P25,000
        • Interest rate: 0.250% (per annum)

        4. BPI Save-up Automatic Savings Account

        Save money automatically with Save-Up Savings. This product transfers a nominated amount money from an ATM account to a Save Up Account. Yes, you need to have an existing savings account where you will be getting the funds to be transferred to your Save-up savings account.

        Deposit Balance Requirements and Rates:

        • Required initial deposit: n/a
        • Required maintaining balance: P1,000/month
        • Required daily balance to earn interest: P3,000
        • Interest rate: 0.5% – 0.8% (per annum depending on type of  account)

        BPI Save-up Automatic Savings Features:

        • Zero initial deposit required.
        • Can be enrolled to the following for convenient monitoring.
          • BPI Express Online
          • BPI Express Mobile
          • BPI Express Phone 89-100
        • Prevention of impulsive withdrawals with Info Card

        Two Product Options:

        1. Save-Up High with higher interest rates.
        2. Save-Up with FREE accident and life insurance* from BPI-Philam Life Insurance.

        Earn interest on your funds and monitor your account transactions with this savings account the simple way.

        5. BPI Jumpstart Savings Account

        BPI’s Jumpstart savings account is design for whose age is from 10-17 years of age. This is a good way to promote saving at an early age especially those teens who go to school.

        Deposit Balance Requirements and Rates:

        • Required initial deposit: P100
        • Required maintaining balance: P500/month
        • Required daily balance to earn interest: P1,000
        • Interest rate: 0.5% (per annum)

        BPI Jumpstart Saving Features:

        • Protect your child’s funds from unplanned withdrawals with this guaranteed savings.
        • Allowance Transfer Facility that ensures a child’s allowance gets credited to his/her Jumpstart Account on a scheduled basis.
        • Cellphone Reloading via BPI Express Teller ATM, BPI Express Phone (89-100), BPI Express Mobile Menu, or by logging on to BPI Express Online.
        • Privileges from partner merchants that can provide valuable childhood experiences

        If you got kids at this age, teach them how to save money by opening this type of savings account.

        6. Maxi-Saver Savings Account

        With this type of savings account, you can get the best possible earnings with BPI Maxi-Saver. This type of savings account has higher interest rate compared to the regular savings accounts.

        Deposit Balance Requirements and Rates:

        • Required initial deposit: P50,000 ATM | P75,000 Passbook
        • Required maintaining balance: P50,000 ATM | P75,000 Passbook (per month)
        • Required daily balance to earn interest: P50,000 ATM | P75,000 Passbook
        • Interest rate: 0.5% (per annum)
          • Less than Php 50,000 – N.A.
          • 50,000 – 499,999 – 0.250%
          • 500,000 – 999,999 – 0.375%
        • 1M and above – 1.000%With 0.5% BONUS p.a. if no withdrawal within a month

        Maxi-Saver Savings Account Features:

        • Higher interest rate compare to other savings account.
        • BONUS 0.5% interest if no withdrawal is made within the month.
        • Can be accessed with 2 different options:
          • ATM with access to BPI 24/7 banking channels.
          • Passbook for record keeping and monitoring and BPI Express Online balance inquiry.

        *Also available in US Dollar variant for passbook (new).

        7. Savings account in BPI with Life insurance

        In this type of savings account, you’ll get Life Insurance worth 3x your account balance for free. You can get up to Php 2 million worth of insurance.

        For the features of this product, kindly check this link.

        Frequently Asked Questions

        Question #1: What are the differences between BPI Banks?
        Answer:

        • BPI Bank is focuses on corporate accounts.
        • BPI Family Savings Bank focuses on individual savings accounts.
        • BPI Direct Savings Bank focuses on telephone and online banking.

        Qestion #2: What if I am a student and want to apply for a BPI Savings account?
        Answer: 
        You might want to try the BPI Easy Saver’s account. It’s good for students because of it’s no maintaining balance feature and low initial deposit.

        Question #3: What are the valid ID for opening BPI Savings account?
        Answer: 

        1. School or Company ID
        2. Driver’s License ID
        3. Passport
        4. Unified ID ( SSS, GSIS or PhilHealth )
        5. Postal ID
        6. Voter’s ID
        7. PRC (Professional Regulation Commission) ID
        8. TIN card (photo-bearing card type)
        9. All other Id’s issued by the Philippine government and its instrumentalities.
        10. Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) ID
          • Seaman’s Book
          • HDMF ID
          • Firearms License
          • IBP ID
          • PNP/AFP ID
          • DSWD ID (Senior Citizen ID)
          • NBI Clearance  | NBI Clearance Online
          • Police Clearance
          • Barangay Clearance/Certificate
          • Marriage Certificate
          • Birth Certificate

        You might be interested in applying for the following bank accounts:

        • BPI Online Banking Enrollment
        • BPI Easy Savers Account
        • BPI ePrepaid Card
        • BDO Credit Card
        • BDO Savings Account
        • Metrobank Savings Account
        • Metrobank Online Banking Enrollment
        • How to link BPI to PayPal


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        Comments

        1. Hi po. Ask ko lang, diba may savings acct sa bpi na P2000 pesos ang starting deposit amount? Help naman po. Thanks

          Reply
        2. hello good day may i ask if what are the requirements for zero maintaining balance ATM card?
          thank you and God bless!

          Reply
        3. good evening… ask ko lang po kung paano na po makakakuha ng statement of account.. naginquire ako sa mga money transfer tulad ng al ansari at uae enchange sabi nila through online nalang daw…. pano ko po masesend yung requirements ko.. para makapag monitor aq online s bpi savings ko…

          Reply
        4. Hello po, asked ko lng po if pwedeng gamitin ang ATM card from my previous employer? means payroll used sya, to personal used? means gagamitin ko sya for personal used? maari po bah iyon? gusto ko kasi na dun nko mag dedeposit ng pera for savings..please reply asap..thank you

          Reply
          • If the account is named after you, it’s all yours 🙂

            Reply
        5. Hi i want to ask lang po,kung ang billing address q ay different sa valid i.d q kasi Lumipat na aq nang bahay..Pwede pa rin po ba aq ma open ng BPI account kahit di parehas ng address sa valid i.D q yung billing address q??please need q lang po ng answer..

          Reply
          • Hi Leslie!

            I guess there won’t be a problem. Well this depends on the BPI branch you are transacting with, because some branches are strict.

            As long as you present 2 VALID, PRIMARY, PICTURE-BEARING IDs, you’re good to go.

            Reply
            • ah ganun po buh thanks sa reply po…coz im interested to get an BPI ATM …

              Reply
        6. Good Afternoon ?

          I would like to ask a little question about opening an account. Last May 26,2017. I open account in BPI Libertad and the lady said to me i can get it by next week Friday June 2, 2017 but due on my schedule of work i cannot go to BPI Libertad my question is there a possibility that when i get my atm card it can’t open or it would be accessible. Im worried if i cant open it due it is one of the requirements in my work where in they put there my salary.

          I Hope you could me a little time to answer my question

          Thank you

          Reply
          • as long as you haven’t used the card yet, there will be no problem.
            Need to change PIN immediately upon first use of your ATM card.

            Reply
        7. Hi mam/sir,

          gusto ko po sana mag apply sa jumpstart savings account . philhealth ,nbi id lang po meron ako , pwede po ba yung billing statement sa nakapangalan sa mama ko? iisang bahay lang naman kami. ok lang po ba na yung income ko galing sa own business ko ? online reseller kasi ako , wala na ako ibang work. gusto ko kasi magsave ng pera na safe.

          Paano po ba mag open account ?

          Reply
        8. I’m a 17 year old student and i’m not sure if i’d open a easy saver savings account or jumpstart savings account. I’m turning 18 sa december so (1) okay pa po ba yun if ever jumpstart savings account ang ioopen ko? (2) if ang required maintaining balance po ay for example, Php 500/month, i need to deposit Php 500 monthly po? (3) should i consider the interest that a particular saving acc features? Thank you po 🙂

          Reply
          • Hello Issa! 🙂

            Okay naman po kung jumstart yung pipiliin mo. Maganda rin yung benefits nya kasi walang bawas pag magwiwithdraw. 🙂

            Kaka-open ko lang kanina ng acount sa BPI, Easy Savers ang pinili ko, di na kasi pwede jumstart sa’kin kasi 18 na ako 🙁 . Yung card fee nya 150 na so I think, lahat ng cards nila ganito na yung price.
            Yung maintaining balance na sinasabi jan is dapat at least 500 Pesos yung laman ng ATM, else magclo-close yung account mo. And sa 3rd question mo, kung kaya mo naman then sure. Halos same lang yung Easy Savers and Jumpstart kasi may same lang sila ng interest rate if you have 1000 in your account. But with Easy Savers, may bawas na PHP 5 kada withdraw mo sa BPI ATM, 15 pag sa iba.
            May bawas na 100 naman pag less than 20,000 yung iwi-withdraw mo over-the-counter, may bawas din na 1.75 kapag mag iinquire ka ng balance sa ibang ATM. May discrepancy pala yung makikita mong balance sa Easy Savers, kasi hinohold nya yung 5 pesos. Meaning kapag ang laman ng account mo is 600, nagwithdraw ka ng 200, yung makikita mong balance is 395 or 390. Tas ang sabi sa akin ng lady is makukuha yung card next week.

            Reply
        9. Hi Sir/Madam!
          Gusto ko po sana mag open ng savings account sa BPI. Pero ang id n meron lang aq ay Voters Id at Bir Id. Wla dn po aq billing statement n nkapangalan sakin.

          Reply
        10. Kailangan pa ba ng utility bill if 17 years old ang kukuha ng savings account?

          Reply
        11. Interested ako sa save up automatic savings account.Kailangan ba yung existing account BPI atm or pwedeng ibang bank? Thank you.

          Reply
        12. hi good day ask ko lang po . bakit nung nagpunta ako sa bpi branch samin sabi ng teller dpat daw ung sss card ang nid nila . di po ba pwedeng police clearance card at company i.d ko ? gusto ko kc mag open ng savings account .

          Reply
          • I don’t know. I’ve actually applied my first BPI savings account using my NBI clearance and my company ID. I guess the branch you’re applying for has a preference.

            If you have the ID they’re looking for, then go. If you don’t have the requirements they’re looking for, try applying in other branch.

            Reply
        13. When I applied for a savings account, i only have my company id, pag ibig card, nbi clearance, and alumni id. The lady told me that they need a primary id so I cant open an account

          Reply
        14. When I enrolled to ATM that has P3,000.00 maintaining balance, they said that I can get my ATM after a week. So, it is not only 2-3 days, right? Am I able to keep track of the withdrawals and deposit without a passbook? Thanks

          Reply
          • hi Gina!

            You can enroll your savings account to BPI Express Online. There, you can keep track of all your transactions. You can even pay Bills using the EOL. You won’t need a passbook for this. Good luck~!

            Reply
        15. I am only a bedspacer since I came from a province, I don’t have billing statement. Can I use the billing statement from my landowner eventhough they’re not a relative?

          Reply
          • If the receipt is not under your name, you still can use it. Just as long as you are living on the same address, it will be accepted.

            Reply

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        Guides

        How to Open BPI Savings Account (Guide  Requirements)

        Ellaine
        May 10, 2018
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        Open BPI Savings Account

        This is a complete guide on how to open BPI savings account. We will cover the requirements, steps, and the different types of savings accounts available.

        BPI or Bank of the Philippine Islands is one of the top choices when it comes to banking and saving money in the Philippines. It is widely trusted by many Filipinos because of their good service and the convenience of their many branches everywhere.

        Content Guide:
        BPI Savings Account Requirements
        List of Valid and Acceptable IDs for BPI
        Steps in Opening a BPI Savings Account
        List of Available BPI Savings Accounts

        Personally, I found their staff to be very accommodating and approachable. It was also easier and hassle free for me to open an account with them than I did with any other banks. Again, these are my personal opinions and I acknowledge that experience can vary from different banks and even branches.

        BPI Savings Account Requirements

        Be prepared to have these requirements ready so that you won’t need to come back again to open BPI savings account.

        • 2 vaild IDs – The list of valid ids they accept is written below, just scroll down to check if your id will qualify. Also, based on my experience and what the teller said to me, if you present a Passport as your ID, it will most likely be good to go already and they might not look for another ID anymore. This is because it’s considered as the primary ID here in the Philippines. I still secured a Baranggay Certificate just to make sure.
        • Billing Statement – The billing statement is not required to be registered in your name but it needs to be the same address that you want to use. They prefer it to have the same surname as yours or of a close relative. If you are renting and not staying with a parent or relative, you will need to present an authorization letter from the registered person on the billing statement or a Baranggay Certificate with “bank requirements” stated for its purpose.
        • 2 copies of 2×2 photos
        • TIN Number – This is a new requirement that banks are now asking for.
        • Photocopy of your IDs and Billing Statement – Don’t forget to photocopy your requirements! Sometimes the branch will offer to photocopy the requirements for you but this is not always the case. Prepare these before your visit to open your savings account faster.
        • Initial Deposit – This will depend on the type of savings account you want to open. One of the top choice is their new BPI Kaya Savings account (formerly BPI Easy Savers) with no maintaining balance required. You will only pay 200 pesos for initial deposit.

        List of Valid and Acceptable IDs to Open BPI Savings Account

        • Passport
        • Driver’s license
        • Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) ID
        • Postal ID
        • Voter’s ID
        • Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)
        • Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) e-Card
        • Social Security System (SSS) card
        • Senior Citizen card
        • Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) ID
        • Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) ID
        • Government office and Government-owned and Controlled Corporation (GOCC) ID (e.g., Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), Home Development Mutual Fund (HDMF) IDs)
        • ID issued by the National Council on Disability Affairs
        • Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP) ID
        • Company ID
        • PhilHealth Health Insurance Card ng Bayan
        • National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) Clearance
        • Police Clearance
        • Baranggay Certification
        • Seaman’s Book
        • Alien Certificate of Registration / Immigrant Certificate of Registration
        • Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) Certification
        • Professional ID cards issued by Maritime Industry Authority (MARINA)

        Steps to Open BPI Savings Account

        1. Visit the nearest BPI bank branch within your area or workplace. Take note of their opening hours. You may also choose branches located within malls for longer banking hours.

        2. Bring your requirements and initial deposit with you.

        3. Proceed to any available bank teller and tell them you want to open a savings account. If you have come at a busy time and there are no available tellers, tell the guard that you want to open a savings account with BPI and they will give you a queue number. You’ll have to wait for a while until your number is called.

        4. Once called, the teller will give you a form to fill up with your personal details and they will ask for your requirements.

        5. Fill up the application form with accurate information. Don’t forget to double check.

        6. The bank teller will process your application and ask for your initial deposit depending on the savings account you want to open.

        7. Your account will be activated in 1 day.

        8. The ATM kit or Passbook will be given to you after your application. In some cases, you will need to come back after 3 – 7 days to get your ATM kit or Passbook. Just come back and present your savings account number and one ID.

        9. You will need to change the default pin to your preferred 4 digit pin code. You can easily do this within the your chosen BPI branch.

        10. The teller might offer to activate your enrollment to their online or phone banking features. Take advantage of these because online transactions will make it easier to manage and view your savings account.

        That’s it! You’re done. You are now a proud BPI savings account holder.

        Note: Take note if there are differences in the required initial deposit and required maintaining balance of your chosen savings account. BPI requires you to deposit the remaining required maintaining balance within 30 days or your account will be deactivated.

        List of Available BPI Savings Accounts

        BPI Kaya Savings Account (formerly known as BPI Easy Savers Account)

        This savings account is one of our most recommended. It has no maintaining balance and only requires 200 pesos for initial deposit. In fact, we have listed this as our top choice when looking for low initial deposit savings account in the Philippines . You don’t have to worry anymore about your savings account being deactivated if for some reason you have withdrawn all of your balance.
         
        Initial Deposit and Maintaining Balance:
        • 200 pesos initial deposit
        • NO maintaining balance required
        • Account comes with an ATM or debit card
        • Enrollment to BPI Online Banking is possible
        • Earn interest rate of 0.250% per annum when savings account reaches a daily balance of 1,000 pesos
        Fees:
        • 5 pesos fee for ATM withdrawal
        • 100 pesos fee if withdrawal is done over the counter

        BPI Express Teller Savings Account

        This is the regular ATM savings account of BPI. It’s also a common savings account of employees. I used to have one of these when I was still an employee.

        Initial Deposit and Maintaining Balance:
        • 500 pesos initial deposit
        • Maintaining balance of 3,000 pesos
        • Earn interest rate of 0.250% per annum when savings account reaches a daily balance of 5,000 pesos

        BPI Passbook Savings Account

        If your purpose is to really save then having a passbook savings account is the best choice you can make. You won’t be tempted to withdraw from your ATM card when you see a sale or a product you’re interested in.

        Initial Deposit and Maintaining Balance:
        • 10,000 pesos initial deposit
        • Maintaining balance of 10,000 pesos
        • Earn interest rate of 0.250% per annum when savings account reaches a daily balance of 25,000 pesos

        BPI Save-up Automatic Savings Account

        Like it’s name suggests, you can save automatically with this. First, you will need to have an existing savings account with BPI. This is great for employees because a fixed price will be automatically transferred from their payroll account to their Save-Up account without needing to do extra transactions or deposits.
        Initial Deposit and Maintaining Balance:
        • NO initial deposit
        Features:
        • Can be enrolled in the following: BPI Online Banking, BPI Mobile Banking, and BPI Phone Banking
        • Comes with an Info Card
        Two Types to Choose From:
        • Save-Up High – Get higher interest rates for your savings
        • Save-Up with FREE accident and life insurance – Get free insurance from BPI-Philam Life Insurance

        BPI Jumpstart Savings Account

        The savings account for kids and teens! This is for those aged 10 – 17 years old. Who says you can’t teach kids about money from a young age? The earlier they start, they earlier they will learn and appreciate saving. So open BPI savings account now for your children and teens.
        Initial Deposit and Maintaining Balance:
        • 100 pesos initial deposit
        • Maintaining balance of 500 pesos
        • Earn interest rate of 0.5% per annum when savings account reaches a daily balance of 1,000 pesos
        Features:
        • Guarantees your child’s savings from unplanned withdrawals
        • Allowance Transfer Facility to transfer allowance from your other BPI savings account
        • Can be enrolled in BPI Phone Banking, BPI Mobile Banking, and BPI Online Banking
        • Privilege card

        BPI Maxi-Saver Savings Account

        This savings account has higher interest earning rates compared to the regular savings account. There’s also a bonus of 0.5% interest if you don’t make any withdrawals for a month.
        Initial Deposit and Maintaining Balance:
        • 50,000 initial deposit for ATM or 75,000 pesos initial deposit for Passbook
        • Maintaining balance of 50,000 pesos for ATM or 75,000 pesos for Passbook
        • Required balance to earn interest: P50,000 for ATM or P75,000 for Passbook
        • Interest rates are calculated based on savings:
          Less than Php 50,000 – N.A.
          50,000 – 499,999 – 0.250% interest rate
          500,000 – 999,999 – 0.375% interest rate
          1M and above – 1.000% interest rate

        BPI Pamana Savings Account (Also known as the BPI Savings Account with Life Insurance)

        This savings account comes with FREE life insurance. Check off two of your personal finance goals with this savings account. Not only are you saving up your hard earned money but you also get insurance to protect and help your family in case of accidents or emergencies.
        See more details below:
        Open BPI Savings Account with Life Insurance

         

        Features:
        * Your savings can earn interest
        * You can choose between Debit Card or Passbook
             – Debit Card has access to BPI 24/7 banking channels
             – Passbook has automatic record-keeping and easy monitoring, with balance viewing
               available in BPI Express Online
        * It’s available in Peso and Dollar (US Dollar Currency is only available  in Passbook)

        There you have it! You now have the complete information to successfully open BPI savings account. Get your requirements ready and open one now at your nearest branch.

        You may also like:

        • 7 Bank Accounts with Low Initial Deposit and Maintaining Balance in the Philippines
        • How to Start Your Own E-Loading Business in the Philippines
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        City University of New York – CUNY School of Law


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        City University of New York - CUNY School of Law campus

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        Overview

        Applicants
        1,460

        Acceptance Rate
        41%

        Average Undergrad GPA
        3.22

        Accepted Applicants Who Attend
        181


        Test Scores

        LSAT
        150 – 157


        Deadlines

        Application Deadlines
        May 15


        Application Process

        Rolling Admissions
        Yes


        Application Fee
        $60


        LSDAS Service Used
        Yes


        Applicants accepted in terms other than fall
        No


        Transfer Applicants Accepted
        Yes


        Deferred Admission
        Yes


        Other Admission Factors

        Academic

        LSAT Score


        Undergraduate GPA


        Letters of Recommendation


        Essay / Personal Statement


        Selectivity Rating

        Admissions selectivity rating
        88

        Faculty Information

        Student/Faculty
        10:1

        Total Faculty
        63


        65
        Female

        38
        Underrepresented Minorities


        Academic experience rating
        93

        Professors interesting rating
        94

        Professors accessible rating
        96


        Students Say

        From the moment they step foot on campus in Long Island City, Queens, CUNY Law students are welcomed into a “diverse” community that’s “encouraging, collaborative and supportive.” What’s more, they benefit from “low tuition” and “state-of-the-art technology” as well as “amazing research resources and centers.” Students also have the opportunity to take advantage of CUNY’s “excellent” clinical programs, acquiring invaluable practical experience in the process. As one student further expounds, “Roughly 1/3 of my credits [at] graduation were in clinical practice, and I feel extremely well prepared to pass the bar and jump into practice.” She goes on to say, “This was supported by my experience in my summer internships: I often felt better prepared for the intensive legal writing, research, and client contact[s]…than my co-interns from T-14 schools expressed they felt.” Additionally, many students are quick to note that CUNY Law places an “emphasis on public interest [law]” and say that the school has fostered an “incredible community of staff and students committed to social justice.” The program also impresses upon its students the need for “zealous advocacy” of their clients. Given its mission of “law in service of human need,” current students do caution that “if you’re coming here in hopes of making it to big law: you’ve made a huge mistake in judgment.” Regardless of focus, CUNY law students speak glowingly about their “phenomenal” professors. Indeed, instructors here are “generally knowledgeable, accessible, and [have] excellent command of the material.” They are also highly skilled at “spark[ing] interesting debates.” Even better, CUNY professors “care as much about pedagogy as they [do] about completing their syllabi.” And though professors do “set the bar high,” they are “more than willing to do what it takes to see us meet that bar.” Student admiration also extends to the administration. Similarly, they are also “accessible” and extremely “interested in student critique.” Best of all, the administration “welcome[s] feedback and encourage students to invest their time in reshaping systems.”

        Career overview

        Career rating
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        Pass Rate for First-Time Bar Exam
        81%

        Median Starting Salary
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        % of graduates who are employed within ten months of graduation
        87%

        % of job accepting graduates providing useable salary information
        74%


        Career Services

        On campus summer employment recruitment for first year JD students
        Yes


        On campus summer employment recruitment for second year JD students
        Yes


        # of Employers that Recruit on Campus Each Year
        22


        Employers who most frequently hire graduates
        Legal Aid Society; NY Appellate Division, 3rd Department; Brooklyn District Attorney’s Office; Bronx Defenders; NJ Superior Court; Brooklyn Defenders, Colorado Defenders, Mass. , Bronx District Attorney’s Office, NYC Law Department, Legal Services of New York NYC Law Department.


        Graduates Employed by Region


        Prominent Alumni

        Rita Mella
        Manhattan Surrogate Court Judge


        William Massey
        Partner at Gladstein, Reif & Meginniss LLP


        Judith C. McCarthy
        U.S. Magistrate Judge


        Muhammad Usman Faridi
        Counsel Patterson Belknap


        Harvey Epstein
        NYS Assembly Member

        Dates

        Financial Aid Rating
        May 15


        Financial Aid Statistics

        Average Annual Total Aid Package Awarded
        $42,048


        % Students Receiving Some Aid
        71%


        Expenses per Academic Year

        In-State Tuition
        $15,000

        Out-Of-State Tuition
        $24,900

        Estimated Off-Campus Room and Board
        $20,512

        Estimated Cost for Books / Academic Expense
        $1,928

        Fees
        $563

        Student Body Profile

        Total Enrollment
        482

        Parent Institution Enrollement
        274,099


        Number of Foreign Countries Represented
        3

        Average Age at Entry
        28


        % Out-of-State
        12%

        % International
        3%


        Demographics

        46.30%
        % Under-represented Minorities


        71% are full time
        29% are part time

        62% female
        38% male


        Campus Life

        Students Say

        Students at CUNY Law proudly report that their school is full of “diversity.” Within the program, “students and professors are generally very open-minded and accepting of [individuals] of all stripes.” The vast majority of students are also “very politically engaged and connected to social justice work outside the law school.” In fact, one student notes, “If there is any social difficulty, it is around not being a ‘good enough’ advocate or ally. Students hold each other to very high standards.” Some individuals caution that the program “feels more like a commuter school.” That’s partially due to the fact that “the average age of students skews older” (the average age at entry is 28), and that they often “have lives outside of law school (family, kids) and friends and relationships that pre-date their attendance at CUNY Law.” Additionally, “there is one building and no ‘campus’ or residential housing.” Nevertheless, many report that they’ve still managed to make “amazing connections and lifelong friends.” They also happily describe their peers as “extremely supportive of each other.” As one student further explains, “On the days that I had to miss a class, I was sent notes from my peers without asking for them. Study groups do form but everyone is open to answering questions and helping each other out.” Of course, this is just an example of the “CUNITY” or “close-knit community” students encounter when they enroll here.


        More Information

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        NGV Home | Education home |

        Header: Australian Impressionism
        • INTRODUCTION
        • INSIGHTS
        • QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES


        Questions and Activities
        • Introduction |
        • Early Years |
        • Middle Years |
        • Later Years


        PDF

        • View a plan of the exhibition

        Later Years

        • Prepare |
        • Explore |
        • Research and Reflect

        Prepare – before the exhibition

        Useful vocabulary

        Subjects

        landscape, rural, urban, still life, narrative, interior, portrait, allegory

        Art terms

        oil paint, direct painting, plein-air, studio, traditional technique, academic art, sketch, tone, modelling, composition, naturalism, atmospheric effects, symbolism, Aestheticism, Impressionism, Symbolism, Barbizon School

        History and culture

        nationalism, national identity, centenary of European settlement, Federation, pastoral expansion, urbanisation

        Overview

        Australian Impressionism presents the work of five artists: Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Frederick McCubbin, Jane Sutherland and Charles Conder. The exhibition focuses on the work that these artists made between 1883 and 1897. During this time, each of these artists played an important role in the development of an Impressionist style of painting and a distinctly national art in Australia. The five artists in the exhibition shared many ideas and interests and sometimes worked together.

        Look at a selection of artworks by these artists.

        Which artists/artworks are familiar? What do you already know about these artists/artworks, and how?

        Which artists/artworks are less familiar? Why might these artists/artworks be less familiar?

        What evidence can you see of the shared interests of the artists?

        What evidence can you see of an artists’ individual styles and interests?

        What is the value of an exhibition such as Australian Impressionism?

        Subjects

        The Australian Impressionists painted a wide range of subjects, including rural and urban landscapes, narratives, portraits and still lifes. Like many other international artists in the late nineteenth century, they were interested in subjects drawn from contemporary life. However, an interest in distinctly Australian themes, evident in many subjects related to the bush and rural life, inspired McCubbin and Roberts to make some paintings that reflected on the nation’s history. The allegorical paintings of Streeton and Conder are also a departure from subjects drawn from contemporary life, and reflect the artists’ awareness of a range of ideas in international art.

        Look at the range of subjects painted by the artists.

        How are these subjects similar/different to the subjects that interested other Australian and international artists at this time?

        Identify a painting by McCubbin and a painting by Roberts that reflect on the nation’s history. What aspect of the nation’s history is explored in each painting?

        Identify a painting by Streeton and a painting by Conder with an allegorical subject. Explain why these subjects can be described as allegorical.

        Identify the main subjects painted by each artist represented in Australian Impressionism.

        Suggest what factors may have influenced each artists’ choice of subjects. Consider, for example personal, economic, artistic, social and cultural influences and interests. (This could be done using an influence diagram).

        Historic framework – boom and bust

        History

        The paintings of the Australian Impressionists span a period that was characterised by prosperity and growth, pastoral expansion and urbanisation, the rise of unionism, as well as industrial conflict, a severe depression and crippling drought.

        Discuss which of these ideas are reflected in a range of paintings, and how.

        Discuss which of these themes and events are not reflected in the paintings. Suggest reasons for this.

        What value do the paintings have as historical documents? How do paintings compare with other historical documents in the information they present?

        Historic framework – Images of a nation

        English
        History

        The years between 1883 and 1897, which are the focus of Australian Impressionism, encompass the centenary of European settlement in 1888, and the years leading up to Federation. The strong nationalistic spirit that prevailed at this time inspired an interest in the nation’s pioneering past and focused attention on the issue of national identity.

        Although most people lived in the cities, it was the bush and bush life that were seen as uniquely Australian, and which exerted the most powerful influence on Australia’s emerging sense of national identity. This interest in the bush and bush life was reflected in the work of many poets, writers and artists of the period, including the Australian Impressionists.

        The plein-air landscape paintings made by the Australian Impressionists at the artists’ camps during the 1880s were strongly associated with the development of ‘a national school of painting’. However, by the late 1880s and 1890s Roberts, McCubbin and Streeton were also making larger scale paintings focusing on aspects of rural and bush life, inspired by the nationalistic spirit of the period. These paintings both reflected and helped to define the nation’s emerging sense of identity.

        Identify a range of factors that contributed to the growth of nationalism in the 1880s.

        Why do you think the bush and bush life are often viewed as distinctly Australian, when most Australians live in cities?

        Identify a range of works by the Australian Impressionists that you believe look distinctly Australian. What aspects of the paintings look distinctly Australian? Consider subject matter, characters, colour, and light.

        What ideas and values about Australian culture, history and identity do the large-scale paintings made by Roberts, McCubbin and Streeton in the 1880s and 1890s communicate?  How are these ideas and values suggested in the paintings?

        Did the ideas and values about Australia and Australian life, evident in these paintings, represent the views and experiences of all Australians when the paintings were made?  Whose views and experiences were not represented and why?

        Are the ideas and values about Australia and Australian life evident in the paintings relevant to contemporary audiences?  Explain.

        What role do artworks, including paintings, poetry and literature, play in defining national identity within a culture?

        Materials, techniques and style – traditional techniques

        Although the Australian Impressionists adopted techniques that reflected some of the more progressive tendencies in nineteenth-century art, including direct painting (see below), their art practice was also informed by more traditional ideas and values.

        Each of the artists represented in the exhibition spent at least some time at the National Gallery School in Melbourne. Like many art schools of the period, classes at the Gallery School followed the example of the influential European art academies and taught traditional painting and drawing skills. This traditional academic training was particularly influential for McCubbin, who had a long involvement with the Gallery School, as both a student and a teacher; and Roberts who continued his education at the Royal Academy School in London after attending the Gallery School in Melbourne. Both artists completed large-scale figure paintings that clearly reflect the influence of their academic training in the formal structure of their compositions, the strength of the figure drawing, and the traditional painting techniques.

        Traditional oil painting techniques involve working with layers of thinned oil paint to gradually build up smooth areas of carefully blended tone and colour within clearly defined outlines. Artists can create very realistic effects working in this way.

        Traditional painting techniques can be seen in some of the artworks of the Australian Impressionists, for example Old Stables c. 1884 by Frederick McCubbin, and in the figures in the large-scale paintings created by McCubbin, such as Down on his luck 1889, and Shearing the rams 1890 by Tom Roberts.

        Identify paintings by the Australian Impressionists where you can see evidence of traditional painting techniques.

        Discuss the visual effects that have been created using this technique

        Apart from traditional painting techniques, what other aspects of Down on his luck and Shearing the rams reflect the artists’ academic training? Consider the formal structure of the composition and the representation of the figures.

        Suggest why McCubbin and Roberts used traditional painting techniques for their large-scale paintings, such as Down on his luck and Shearing the rams. Consider, for example, how the subject matter, purpose and audience of these paintings may have influenced the artists’ approach.

        Materials techniques and style – direct painting and Impressionism

        Like many other artists of the period, theAustralian Impressionists also adopted a more modern, direct style of painting. This involved applying obvious strokes of colour and tone directly onto the surface of a painting to create an ‘impression’ of a subject, rather than a detailed description of it.

        In the nineteenth century, artists and critics began to use the word ‘impressionism’ to describe the informal, direct painting style that was being used by many artists.

        There were groups of artists working in an Impressionist style in many parts of the world, including Europe, England, North America and Australia. The most famous group of Impressionist artists worked together in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s. Several of the artists associated with this group, including Claude Monet, developed a bold new approach to using colour. However, the Australian Impressionists were not directly influenced by the French Impressionists.

        This was, in part, because they were interested in making paintings that looked distinctly Australian. They were, however, interested in the work of the French plein-air painters, and Jules Bastien-Lepage and his followers who combined aspects of an Impressionist style with a more traditional academic style of painting to create images that celebrate rural life and work. The work of James McNeill Whistler was also an important influence on the Australian Impressionists. This is most evident in the paintings made for the 9 by 5 Impressionist Exhibition, and in the presentation of this exhibition.

        Identify paintings by the Australian Impressionists that show evidence of a direct painting style.

        Discuss the visual effects that have been created using this technique. How do they differ from the effects created by more traditional painting techniques?

        Why do you think artists and critics began to use the term ‘impressionism’ to describe paintings made in a direct painting style?

        What are the advantages and disadvantages of applying such terms to artists and artworks?

        Look at examples of French Impressionism. How does this form of Impressionism differ from Australian Impressionism?

        Look at the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage and James McNeill Whistler. What links can you see between the work of these artists and the Australian Impressionists?

        Explore how the Australian Impressionists may have learnt about the work of international artists. Consider, for example, the impact of Roberts’s travels abroad, International exhibitions and artists in Melbourne, and the international art press.

        Plein-air painting

        The artists in Australian Impressionism often painted en plein air (out of doors) to observe and record the light, colour and atmosphere of their subjects. This frequently involved painting very quickly, using a direct painting style, to create an impression of changing effects, such as sunlight or weather.

        Earlier artists, including artists of the Colonial period, such as John Glover and Eugene Von Guérard in Australia, had made oil sketches of the landscape en plein air, but these sketches were made as preparatory work for paintings that were completed in the studio.

        International artists with experience of the plein-air movement in Europe, who worked in Australia in the 1880s and 1890s, played an important role in the development of the plein-air movement in Australia.

        Investigate and discuss the development of the plein-air painting movement internationally and in Australia in the nineteenth century.

        How did the practice of working en plein air to produce a finished painting differ significantly from more traditional approaches to painting the landscape?  How is this evident in the type of landscape paintings the artists produced?

        What practical challenges did working en plein air present to artists?

        Identify several paintings by the Australian Impressionists made en plein air that reveal different light colour and atmospheric effects. Describe the different light, colour and atmospheric effects in each painting.

        Consider how the artist’s technique, style (including use of colour and tone) suggests these effects.

        Compare these paintings with a landscape painting by an earlier artist that was completed in the studio. What differences are there between the works (consider technique, visual qualities, composition and scale)?

        Significant sites

        Australian Impressionism highlights many of the significant sites where the artists associated with Australian Impressionism worked en plein air. These include Box Hill, Heidelberg and Mentone, outside Melbourne, where the artists set up artists’ camps for plein-air painting. There are also a significant number of paintings in the exhibition about Melbourne and Sydney.

        Look at maps of Sydney and Melbourne and the surrounding areas to locate the main sites where the artists worked in and around these cities.

        Investigate what factors led the artists to each site, including the natural attractions of the site and accessibility by public transport.

        Identify who worked at each site, approximately when they worked there and what paintings were made there. Different students in the class could research different sites and report back to the class.

        Why is the term ‘Heidelberg School’ often used in reference to the artists associated with Australian Impressionism?  Consider the relative importance of this site, but also the factors that contribute to how groups of artists are often defined in art history.  What are the issues associated with using the term ‘Heidelberg School’ to identify these artists?

        The 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition

        In 1889 the Australian Impressionists held an exhibition of paintings made in an Impressionist style. They called it the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition because many of the paintings were painted on boards that measured 9 inches by 5 inches. The exhibition attracted enormous interest. Although many people admired the paintings, some critics were shocked by them and felt that they looked unfinished.

        Look at some reproductions of the 9 by 5 paintings.

        Why do you think the artists described these paintings as impressions?  Look at the paintings and consider the artist’s statement in the exhibition catalogue in our discussion.

        Read some of the reviews of the exhibition, especially the comments of James Smith. What concerns are expressed in these reviews?  Suggest why James Smith had these concerns?

        Who did the paintings appeal to and why?

        Read about the planning, promotion and presentation of the exhibition. Suggest why the artists organised an exhibition of these paintings and why they put so much effort into the planning, promotion and presentation.

        Originals and reproductions

        The paintings in Australian Impressionism are among the most well-known images in Australian art. Many people know the paintings through reproductions in books, advertisements, or on posters, postcards, stamps, jigsaw puzzles and even coffee mugs.

        The exhibition features the original paintings, including many of the most well-known paintings of the period. The National Gallery of Victoria owns a significant number of these paintings, but many have been borrowed from other galleries and private owners around Australia and overseas.

        Why are the paintings of these artists so popular?

        Where have you seen reproductions and in what form?

        What role have the reproductions of these paintings played in our understanding of the period, including ideas about national identity?

        Why is it important to view the artworks in the original?

         

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        ANTELOPE
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